文学家闻一多资料简介生平事迹故事 “五四”时期的爱国青年

时间:2016-10-26 17:42:09 来源:8794网 编辑:小霸气

  “五四”时期的爱国青年

  WENYIDUO,YUANMINGYIDUO,BEIMINGJIAHUA,ZIYOUSAN,HAOYOUSHAN,ZAIBEIJINGQINGHUAXUEXIAODUSHUSHIGAIMINGWENYIDUO,BIMINGYOUXIXI、YI、TULONGJUSHI、T.L、H.C、FENGYEDENG,1899NIAN11YUE24RICHUSHENGYUHUBEISHENGXISHUIXIANYIGE“SHUXIANGMENDI、SHIJIAWANGZU”DEFENGJIANDAJIATING。XIONGDIWUREN,TAPAIXINGDISI。FUQINWENGUCHENSHIQINGMODEXIUCAI,WEIRENZHONGHOU,LEYUJIESHOUXINSICHAO,ZANTONGBIANFAWEIXIN,DUIYUWENYIDUOXIONGDIDESIXIANGPINGEDEXINGCHENGYOUZHONGYAODEYINGXIANG。

  WENYIDUOWUSUIFAMENG,ZAIJIASHULIHEXIONGZHANGMENYIQISONGDU《SANZIJING》、《YOUXUEQIONGLIN》HE“SISHU”、“WUJING”DENGCHUANTONGJIAOCAI。SUIZHEYANGXUETANGDEXINGQI,TAYOUJIECHULEGUOWEN、LISHI、BOWU、SUANSHU、XIUSHENDENGXINZHISHI,JIANSHIRIZENG。1910NIAN,WENYIDUOKAOJINLELIANGHUSHIFANFUSHUGAODENGXIAOXUEXIAO。DIERNIAN,WENYIDUOZAIZHEILIMUDULEXINHAIGEMINGTUIFANDIZHI、JIANLIMINGUODEKONGQIANZHUANGJU。TAYEHEXUDUODARENYIYANG,XINGFENDIJIANDIAOLEXIANGZHENGQINGWANGCHAOFENGJIANTONGZHIDEBIANZI,YOUSHIHAIDAOSIMENKOU、YUEMACHANGDENGRENAOCHUSUOQUKANQUNZHONGJIHUIHUOSHIBINGLIANCAO。CIHOUBUJIU,YOUYUJUSHIJINZHANG,XUEXIAOTINGKE,WENYIDUOBUDEBUZANSHIHUIDAOLEXISHUIGUXIANG。TAZAIXIANGXIAFENGRENBIANSHUOWUCHANGQIYIDEXINWEN,DUIGUOJIADEZHONGXINGPODUOHUANXIANG,YONGHUHECHONGBAIGEMINGDANG。ZHEICHANGGEMINGPEIYULEWENYIDUOZUICHUDECHUNPODEAIGUOZHUYISIXIANGGANQING。

  1912NIANQIU,WENYIDUOZAIWUCHANGSHIXIUXUEXIAOYIBEIQUDIYIMINGHEFUSHIDIERMINGDEZIGEKAOQULEBEIJINGQINGHUAXUEXIAO。

  WENYIDUOZAIQINGHUAQIUXUEQIJIAN,PINXUEJIANYOU,XIANLUCHUDUOFANGMIANDEJIYICAIHUAHEZUZHINENGLI,SHITONGXUEMENYIZHIGONGRENDE“BOXUEZHISHI”,BINGSHENDESHIZHANGMENDEQIZHONG。

  TAREAIXIJU,DANRENGUOQINGHUAXINJUSHEBIANYANBUDEFUZEREN。TAZIBIANZIYANDEXINJU《GEMINGJUN》、《PENGLAIHUI》DENG,CENGDUOCIZAIQUANXIAODEYANCHUBISAIZHONGHUOJIANG。

的星力平台  TAREAIMEISHU,1919NIANQIUCANYUFAQICHENGLILEQINGHUAMEISHUSHE,SHEYUANDUODA50YUREN。TADEZUOPINCENGBEIMEISHUJIAOYUANXUANSONGDAOBANAMADEBOLANHUISHANGZHANCHU。

  TAKUAIWENXUE,SHI1921NIAN11YUECHENGLIDEQINGHUAWENXUESHEDEGUGAN,ZHILIYUSHIGEDECHUANGZUOYUYANJIU。1920NIAN9YUE,《QINGHUAZHOUKAN》SHANGFABIAOLETADEDIYISHOUBAIHUAXINSHI《XIAN》。ZHEISHOUSHIYONGXIANGZHENGDESHOUFA,XIANMINGDIQINGSUCHUSHIRENDUIYUHEIANXIANSHIDEZENGHENHEYANE。TABABEIYANGJUNFATONGZHIXIADEBEIJINGCHENGBIYUWEI“MANTIANHUZHEWUYADEKUWU,YAZHEMANHEWUQIDESISHUI。”SHUOMINGZAIZHEILI,“MEIYOUZHEN,MEIYOUMEI,MEIYOUSHAN,GENGCONGNALIQUZHAOMINGGUANGLAI?”[1] CISHIZAIBIANRUSHIJI《HONGZHU》SHI,WENYIDUOZAISHISHOUYINLEYINGGUOLANGMANZHUYISHIRENJICI(JohnKeats,1795—1821)DEYIJUSHI,DAYISHI:“HUANXIANGCHASHANGLEMEIDECHIBANG,XIWANGDECHUNTIANJIUHUILAILIN”(BENCHUANZUOZHEYI)。YUSHI,SHIRENYOUHUANXIANGCHUZAIZHEIDAHEDEXIANDINGHUIYOUGEBUTONGDESHIJIE,CONGERJUEXIN“TAOTUO”ZHEIDONGANDE“FANLONG”,“DAGEQIAO,CHUANGUODAO,ZOUZHEGUO!”QUXUNQIUNEI“XIANDIGUANGMING!”[1] ZHEISHOUSHITUCHUDIBIAOXIANLESHIREN“YISHUWEIYISHU”DEWEIMEIQINGXIANG,TONGSHISHUFALESHIRENREAIZUGUO、YUANWEIZUGUODEXINSHENGXIANSHENDEGAOSHANGQINGHUAI。WENYIDUOHAIQINGXINYUSHIGELILUNDETANTAOHECHANFA。TACENGZAIQINGHUAWENXUESHENEIZUOGUO《SHIDEYINJIEDEYANJIU》DEBAOGAO。1922NIAN5YUE,QINGHUAWENXUESHECHUBANDECONGSHUDIYIZHONGJIUSHIWENYIDUODE《DONGYEPINGLUN》HELIANGSHIQIUDE《CAOERPINGLUN》DEHEJI。ZHEIBENSHUYICHUBAN,LIJIDEDAOLEDANGSHIYUANZAIRIBENDEGUOMORUODEGAODUPINGLUN。GUOMORUOFEIHONGZHIHEQU:“RUZAICHENHEIDEYELIDEJIANLIANGKEMINGXING,RUZAIZHENGREDEYANTIANDEYINLIANGBEIQINGSHUI……ZAIHAIWAIDEDULIANGJUNPINGLUN,RUTAOHUANGZHEDEWENRENZUYINZHIQIONGRAN。”[2]

的星力平台  WENYIDUOZAIQINGHUAQIUXUEQIJIAN,MEINIANSHUJIADOUYAOHUIDAOJIAXIANGDUSHUERYUE,BINGJIANGQIDUSHUSHIZIMINGWEI“ERYUELU”。ZAIZHEILI,TAKEYIBAITUOXUEXIAOGONGKEDEYALIHEXIANZHI,JINQINGDIYUEDUZIJISUOXIAIDEZHONGGUOSHISHUHESHIJIDENG。TABIANDUBIANSIKAO,SUISHIJIXIAYIXIEDUTEDEXINDEHEGANSHOU,PINGSHILUNSHI,BAOBIANRENWU,KAOZHENGSHISHI,JUNYOUCHUANGJIAN。TAYONGQIANJINDEWENYANWENXIECHENGDEZHEIXIEDUSHUZHAJI,CONG1916NIAN4YUE19RIZHI12YUE14RI,YI《ERYUELUMANJI》WEIZONGTI,ZAI《QINGHUAZHOUKAN》SHANGLIANZAILE16ZE。ZHEISHIWENYIDUOZUIZAOFABIAODEWENZHANG。ZHEIXIEWENZHANGGANYUTICHUHEJIANCHIZIJIDEJIANJIE。RUDUDUFUDESHI,TAFAXIANLE:“DUZIMEIFUMING‘XIAN’,GUSHIZHONGBUYONG‘XIAN’ZI。‘JUANJUANXIDIEGUOXIANMAN’,YUANZUO‘KAIMAN’,KEBENZHIWUYE。MUMINGHAITANG,GUBUYONGHAITANG。POGONGYOUSHIYUN:‘SHAONIANWEIERQIANSHIXING,KESHIWUXINFUHAITANG。’QIWEIZHIKAOYE。”[3] YOURUDUIXISHIYUFANLIDECHUANSHUO,TAYEJINXINGLEZIXIDEBIANZHENG:“ZIDUMUYONG‘XIZIXIAGUSU,YIGEZHUCHIYI’ZHIJU,SHIJIECHUANFANLIZAIXISHIYITAO。JIGUAN《XIUWENYULAN》YIN《WUYUECHUNQIU》YOUYUN:‘WUWANGHOU,FUXISHIYUJIANG,LINGSUICHIYIYIZHONGFUCHENYE。’ZIXUZHIBEICHAN,XISHIYOULIYAN;ZIXUSI,YICHIYIFUZHIJIANG;JINCHENXISHIYUJIANG,SUOYIXIEZIXUYE。FANLIQUYUEYIHAOCHIYIZI,MUSUIWUYIXUWEILIER。MOZIYUE:‘WUYUEZHILIEQIGONGYE,XISHIZHICHENQIMEIYE。’QIFEIMINGZHENGZAI! WENSHIYISHICHENBI,SUIDUOHOURENYUYIWANG。”[4]16ZE《MANJI》,GONGYOUCILEIKAOZHENGYILUNLIUSHIYUTIAO,TAFANYINGCHUSHAONIANWENYIDUOXUEXIZUGUOLISHIWENHUADESHIJI。

  WENYIDUOZAIQINGHUADUSHUSHIHAISHIFENREXINYUSHEHUIHUODONG。1914NIANZAISHANGZHONGDENGKEERNIANJISHI,TAKAISHIDANRENXUESHENGKANWU《QINGHUAZHOUKAN》DEBIANJIHEJIGAOYUAN;1919NIANZHI1920NIANJIAN,TAYOUDANRENLEXUESHUXINGKANWU《QINGHUAXUEBAO》DEXUESHENGBIANJI;1917NIANZAIZHONGDENGKEBIYESHI,TAFUZEZHUBIANNIANJIJINIANCE《XINYOUJING》,ZHUANXIEFAKANCIHEZICHUAN《WENDUO》DENGSHIWENGONGSHIPIAN。ZHEIXIESHIWEN,SHIWENYIDUOZAIQINGHUAQIANSINIANXUEXI、SHENGHUOHESIXIANGZHUANGKUANGDEZHENSHIJILU。

的星力平台  WENYIDUOZAIQINGHUAQIUXUEQIJIAN,ZHENGSHIZHONGGUOSHEHUIYOUZICHANJIEJILINGDAODEJIUMINZHUZHUYIGEMINGXIANGWUCHANJIEJILINGDAODEXINMINZHUZHUYIGEMINGGUODUDELISHIZHUANZHESHIQI。1915NIAN9YUE15RI,CHENDUXIUZHUBIANDE《QINGNIANZAZHI》(CONGDIERJUANQIGAIMINGWEI《XINQINGNIAN》)ZAISHANGHAICHUANGKAN,TABIAOZHIZHEZHONGGUOXINWENHUAYUNDONGDEKAIDUAN。CHENDUXIUSHOUCHANGDE“MINZHU”HE“KEXUE”DEKOUHAOYOURUXIXICHUNFENG,CHUIFUSHENZHOUDADI,YECHUIKAILESHAONIANWENYIDUODEXINFEI。TAZANSONG“《XINQINGNIAN》SHIZHONGGUOXINWENHUADEBIZU,DANGRANSHOUYIBANRENDECHONGBAI”[1]。ZHENGSHIZAI“MINZHU”YU“KEXUE”DEKOUHAOGUWUZHIXIA,WENYIDUOYONGGANDITOUSHENDAOWUSIYUNDONGDEJILIUZHIZHONG。

  1919NIAN5YUE4RISHIGEXINGQITIAN,BEIJINGCHENGLITIANANMENQIANBAOFALEYIQINGNIANXUESHENGWEIZHUTIDEAIGUOSHIWEIDAYOUXING,CONGCIXIANKAILEZHONGGUORENMINFANDUIDIGUOZHUYI、FANDUIFENGJIANZHUYIDOUZHENGDEZHANXINYIYE。QINGHUAXUEXIAOYOUYUYUANZAIJIAOQU,XIAOXIBISAI,DANGTIANMEINENGZUZHIXUESHENGJINCHENGCANJIAZHEIYIXINGDONG。ZHEITIANBANGWAN,WENYIDUOTINGDAOLECONGCHENGLIGUILAIDEYUANFANGTANGXIONGWENDICHUNJIANGSHUZIJIERWENMUDUDEXINWENYIHOU,WUBIZHENFEN。TALIANYEYONGDAHONGZHICHAOLUCHUYUEFEIDE《MANJIANGHONG》CI,TIEDAOXUESHENGFANTINGMENQIANDEBUGAOLANNEI,JIEYIGUDONGTONGXUEMENDEAIGUOREQING。DIERTIAN,QINGHUADEXUESHENGGANBUHESHETUANFUZERENJUXINGLIANXIHUIYI,JUEDINGJITIJIARUBEIJINGXUESHENGJIUGUOHUI,YUBEIJINGXUESHENGQUYIZHIXINGDONG,JIANCHIDAODI。HUIYIXUANJULUOLONGJIWEIQINGHUAXUESHENGZIZHIHUIZHUXI,WENYIDUORENSHUJI,FUZEQICAO《ZHIBALIHEHUIDETONGDIAN》HE《ZHIQUANGUOXUEJIEDEXUANYAN》DENGWENGAO[2]。

的星力平台  DANGWUSIAIGUOYUNDONGDEGAOCHAOXUNSUKUOZHANDAOQUANGUOFANWEIYIHOU,SHISHICHENGLITONGYILINGDAOQUANGUOXUESHENGYUNDONGDEZUZHIJIUXIANDEJIDUANZHONGYAO。6YUE16RI,QUANGUOXUESHENGLIANHEHUIZAISHANGHAICHENGLI,WENYIDUO、LUOLONGJI、LUOFAZU、QIANZONGBAO、LUMEISENGWUWEITONGXUEBEIXUANWEIQINGHUAXUEXIAODEDAIBIAO。WEILEQUANLITOURUAIGUOYUNDONG,WENYIDUOYIRANJUEDINGZHEINIANSHUJIAPOLIBUHUIJIA,BINGYU5YUE17RIXIAWUXIEXINJIFUMU,NAIXINJIAYIJIESHI:“YINIANWEIGUIJIA,QIECINIANZHONGJIANEIYOUDUOBIANGU,……ERDARENYUANNANDENGHUIJIAYIJI,JIZAINANDENGYIHECHANGBUYUANHUIJIASHAOJINWENSHENGZHIZE。YUANKESIJIA,RENZHIQINGYE……JINNIANBUXINGYOUGUOJIADASHI,ZERENSUOZAI,SHIYOUNANTAO,BUDEYIYE。”TAZAIZHEIFENGXINZHONGHAICHENSULEZIJIDUIYU“AIGUO”DELIJIE:“NANZAICIWEIGUOZUOSHI,FEIWEIYOUNANGUOJIBUWANG,NAIGUOJIAYUYANGXUESHENG,SUIMIJUWAN,YIDANYOUSHI,XUESHENGSHANGBUCHULI,GENGDAISHEIREN?ZHONGXIAOERTU,BENFEIXIANGBEI,JINZHONGJISUOYIJINXIAOYE。QIENANZAIXIAOZHONG,POCHENGMINGDAYI,JINYUCISHI,YOUBUNENGXISHENG,QIZUYITANAIGUO?NANMEIYUSHIGURENQING,BUSHANYUSURENJIAOJIE,DUZHIDUSHU,MEIZHIGURENZHONGYIZHISHI,ZHEWEISHENWANG,CHANGZIXULVDUANDASHIBUHUTU,BUZAICIHU?HUOZHERENYIWEINANCIYILUNWEIDAYANKONGTAN,RUSUYUYUE‘BULUOSHI’,HUOZEYUE‘KUANGWANG’,CICHENGBURAN。JINRIWURENZUOAIGUOZHISHI,YIWURENCHUAIGUOZHIYAN,XIANGXICHENGFENG,ZHIBUZHIAIGUOWEIHEWU,YOURENSHAOYANAIGUO,BISIXIANGJINGYI,CIWEIBULUOSHIYUKUANGWANG,QIBUKEBEI!”[1]

  WEIDADEWUSIAIGUOYUNDONG,HUANQILEWENYIDUOFENQIJIUGUO、GAILIANGSHEHUIDEQIANGLIEYUANWANG。DANGSHI,XUDUOXIANJINDEZHISHIFENZI,WEILEWANJIUGUOJIAMINZUDEWEIWANG,SHIPINRUODEZUGUOQIANGSHENGQILAI,BUSHOUWAIGUORENQIFU,DOUCENGXIANGXIFANGXUNQIUGUOGEZHONGGEYANGDESIXIANGWUQI,XIWANGNENGJIEJUEZHONGGUODEWENTI。ZUOWEISHIRENDEWENYIDUO,TADEMUGUANGDANGRANSHIGENGDUODIZAIWENYILINGYULIQUXUNZHAOZIJIDEJINGSHENWUQI。TAREAIZUGUO,SISUOZHENGJIUZUGUODETUJING,KEZUIHOUDECHUDEJIELUNQUESHI——YISHUJIUGUO! 1920NIANQIU,TAZAIQINGHUAFAQIZUZHILEYIGE“YANJIUYISHUJIQIYURENSHENGDEGUANXI”DETUANTI“MEISISI”(Muses),TONGSHIHAIFACHULE《ZHENGQIUYISHUZHUANMENDETONGYEZHEDEHUSHENG》DEWENGAO,RENDING“YISHUQUESHIGAIZAOSHEHUIDIJIWU”,HUYU“YOUYISHUTIANNENGDEPENGYOUMEN,KUAIQILAIYA!”[2]

  1921NIAN6YUE,BEIJINGJIAOYUJIEBAOFALEYILIDAZHAO、MAXULUNWEISHOUDE“BAXIAOJIAOZHIYUANSUOXINTUAN”DEZHENGYIDOUZHENG。QISHIZHENGMIANLINBIYECHUYANGDEWENYIDUO,JIANCHICANJIALEWEISHENGYUANSUOXINDOUZHENGERJUXINGDE“TONGQINGBAKAO”。TASHIBIYEBANZHONGWEICISHIERBEIXIAOFANGLELINGKAICHUDE29MINGTONGXUEZHONGDEYIGE,HOULAIJINGDOUZHENGSUIRANBAOZHULEXUEJI,DANRENGSHOUDAOLE“BUHUIGUOJILIUJIYINIAN,TUICHICHUYANG”DECHUFEN。WENYIDUOSHIZHONGJIANCHI“WUGUOKEHUI”。TADUITONGBANTONGXUEWUZELINSHUO:“ZHENGYIBUNENGZUOMAIMAI,JIANGTIAOJIAN!”[3] JINGGUOJIANCHIDOUZHENG,ZHONGYUPOSHIXUEXIAODANGJUYU1922NIAN4YUEQUXIAOLEDUITAMENDELIUJIJUEDING,ZHUNYUBIYE。DUICI,WUZELINPEIFUDISHUO:“WENYIDUOSHIZHENGZHIDEREN!”[4]

  1922年春,闻一多在清华学业期满。留美前夕,他受父母之命,回到湖北浠水家乡,与姨表妹高孝贞(后改名高真)成婚。婚后不久,闻一多即离别了故乡,告别了亲人,怀着“美育救国”的理想,远渡重洋,开始了艰难的人生跋涉。

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